‘Marking Histories’ Discontents: Frontier Imaginaries’ ‘Trade Markings’’, un Magazine

Marking Histories’ Discontents: Frontier Imaginaries Edtion No. 5, ‘Trade Markings’, Van Abbe Museum Eindhoven, 7 April — 1 July 2018

Frontier Imaginaries is a roving art and research platform founded by Amsterdam-based and Brisbane-raised curator Vivian Ziherl. Dedicated to studying the frontier in the global era, Ziherl emphasises that ‘the frontier is not a border.’ Rather, it is better understood as a threshold, beyond which what exists is ontologically different to where the perceiver is located. In colonial contexts the frontier distinguishes between civilised and uncivilised territories, like the North American notion of the ‘Wild West’ or in Australia what is often referred to as ‘the Bush,’ territories over which settlers’ have long sought to exert control.

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Installation view, L-R: Gordon Hookey, ‘Murriland! #1’ 2016; Farida Sedoc, ‘Move on over or we’ll move on over you’ 2018 and ‘Grass Roots’ 2018; Tshibumba Kanda-Matulu, ‘History of Zaire’ 1973–1974. Photo: Marcel de Buck.

‘Eine Frage schwärzer Liquidität’, Springerin 02/2018

Jonathan Beller delivering his keynote Derivative Living, Transmediale, Haus der Kulturen der Welt 2018. Photo: Adam Berry

A Question of Black Liquidity: Critical Race Media Theory @ Transmediale: Face Value  Berlin, 31 January–4 February 2018
Published in deutsch, in English below.

‘Face Value’ marked an intersectional turn for Transmediale, Berlin’s premier festival of media arts and digital culture, with a program poised to address relations of class, gender and race built into media and technology systems.

In the first of the festival’s keynote lectures, feminist postcolonial scholar Françiose Vergès elaborated on her recent text about the ‘Racial Capitalocene’, drawing on the work of influential Black thinker Cederic J. Robinson. Robinson’s critique of capitalism’s appropriation of Black labor power as ‘constant capital’(i) was picked up by Jonathan Beller in his keynote, ‘Derivative Living,’ the following night. Alongside Lisa Nakamura, another keynote speaker at this year’s Transmediale and Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, who featured at the festival last year, their work announces a field of critical race media theory.

Beller’s mostly pessimistic analysis of life under a regime of ‘computational racial capitalism’ recalls Robinson’s findings that capitalism arose from conditions that were already racializing the peoples of feudal Europe. These modes of differentiation expanded with European colonialism, leading to the ‘obligatory’ development of the negro slave, whose labor power was necessary for the emergent world economy.

The racialized character of labor remains, most obviously as structural global inequalities continue to produce differentials in globalised labor markets, and thus supply ‘cheap labor’ in the former colonized parts of the world. More recently, forms of immaterial labor and communicative capitalism have flourished in the wake of social media which has come to dominate our modes of representation. Beller notes that platforms such as Facebook, have established a distributed means of production that exploit our affective, attentional and metabolic capacities as ‘deterritorialized factories’ and he is critical of such processes of ‘digitization’ which often operate under the guise of digital culture.

Record keeping is historically a racialising, gendering and class-defining process of differentiation; of classifying people as quantities, statistics, resources and assets. Information is not value-neutral, nor are the media-technological formations by which it is analysed, circulated and proliferated independent of ideology. ‘Colonialism merely gives way to computational colonialism,’ is how Beller describes the simultaneous processes of ‘informationization, computerization and financialization’ undertaken by platforms which are intensified by the centralization of information with supranational media-technology corporations such as Google and Facebook, and the concentration of financial power with banks and states. Echoing Robinson, he claims all of us are rendered as fixed capital by a totalizing system of computational capitalism.

Surprisingly, Beller glimpses some potential for emancipation in recent experiments with these very processes, in particular the activities of the Economic Space Agency (ECSA), a start-up of sorts developing alternative finance on the blockchain-based platform Ethereum. Blockchain, an innovation of the vanguard cryptocurrency Bitcoin, is a ‘trustless’ computational means of validating and securing transactions on a public ledger that is relayed across a network, removing the need for a centralising authority like a bank. Ethereum is effectively the first blockchain-based distributed computing operating system, enabling developers to build applications for it that make use of smart-contracts—digital protocols which execute and enforce agreed-upon tasks, and that are arguably more secure in guaranteeing transactions than methods vulnerable to human foibles. Without recourse to an overseeing authority, on Ethereum there is an opportunity to ‘open-source finance.’ ECSA’s ‘Space program’ proposes to do this by facilitating the ‘interoperation of a plurality of micro-economies’ in new economic space. Participating ‘econauts’ would determine their own terms of value creation, issue tokens or cryptocurrencies to leverage their activities and engage in trade to support other like-minded communities. Making use of ubiquitous computing ‘everyday people’ could take control of their financialization and thus according to ECSA, ‘the design of economic space becomes a means of collective self-expression.’(ii)

‘Don’t take things at face value,’ cautioned Transmediale’s artistic director Kristoffer Gansing at the festival press preview. So it would be prudent to consider who stands to profit from developments in speculative computational finance. Legal scholar Robert Herian(iii) warns us to be wary of those using technological innovation to mask motives that differ from those whom they claim it will benefit. For entrepreneurs, the attraction of ‘disruptive’ technologies such as blockchain lies in their capacity to open up new markets and competition, and technological innovation is a means to gain advantages over competitors. Contrary to the dream of decentralisation and diversity, market success tends towards the consolidation of power and economic monopolization, so Herian argues, rather than usurp the status quo, disruption in markets is most often ‘radically conservative.’

Cedric Robinson reminds us that the foundational figure of capitalism’s world system was not the worker but the slave. The profit motive implies that many of those who participate in liquidity and trade simply want to get rich, so would not those who come to power in alternative economies reproduce the same violence on which capitalism is predicated? Might the self-financialization of social activism, as Beller suggests with the example of Black Lives Matter, deepen the dynamics of the gig economy which commandeers self-expression as market differentiation, as social competition and ultimately unfreedom? As one respondent from the audience pointedly asked: ‘Where does the Black body enter into cryptocurrency other than being a client in jail?’(iv)

Such anxieties underpinned several discussions at Transmediale that were attentive to who was enabled to speak and who was privileged enough to attend. Undoubtedly these concerns trouble all of us ‘non-Blacks’ engaged with Black thought. I am taken by the writing of another festival participant Aria Dean, whose ‘Notes on Blacceleration’ locates a strain of radical Black thinking which mobilizes and accelerates Black peoples’ long history as living capital and speculative value; as those historically cast as sub-human re-make themselves as inhuman, counter-human and anti-human in their efforts to move with, through and beyond capitalism’s modes of repression and alienation. Learning from these histories and practices, we might be reminded in our attempts to wrest control of derivative living that social life need not be a competition, lest it become yet another race to the bottom.

i Cederic J. Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition, Zed Press, London (1983).

ii  See Economic Space Agency (ECSA), ‘On Intensive Self-issuance: Economic Space Agency and the Space Platform’, in: Gloerich, Lovink, de Vries (eds), MoneyLab Reader 2: Overcoming the Hype, Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam (2018).

iii See Robert Herian, ‘Blockchain and the Distributed Reproduction of Capitalist Class Power’, in: Gloerich, Lovink, de Vries (eds), MoneyLab Reader #2: Overcoming the Hype, Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam (2018).

iv An audio recording of Beller’s keynote is archived on Transmediale’s website.

Read at Springerin.

‘Escaping the arts of governing: Notes on Jonas Staal’s PhD Defense’, Temporary Art Review

Jonas Staal’s PhD Defense, Great Auditorium, Leiden University Photo: Ruben Hamelink

Escaping the Arts of Governing: Notes on Jonas Staal’s PhD Defense

Jonas Staal declares himself to be a propaganda artist. Given the pressures to professionalize, it is unusual for an artist to describe themselves with a term often associated with authoritarianism. Yet, unlike many artists passing through formal art education, Staal has no interest in reflecting and commenting on the ambiguities of the world, but rather proposes to change it.

More at Temporary Art Review

‘Chelsea Manning changes face at Berlin's Transmediale festival 2018’, Deutsche Welle, January 2018

‘Probably Chelsea’ (installation view), 2017, Heather Dewey-Hagborg and Chelsea Manning.

The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg first had contact with Chelsea Manning in 2015 when the whistleblower was serving a thirty-five year sentence for leaking classified information while working as a US army intelligence analyst in Iraq. But before the two had even messaged, sent letters or spoken, Dewey-Hagborg had received hair clippings and cheek swabs from Manning after they had been smuggled out of the prison.

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‘Queering and Quaring Virtual Space,’ Runway: Space, December 2017.

Screen grab from Virtual Drag. ‘Virtual Drag Presentation for UNIT Festival’, 2017.

Virtual Reality (VR), as put forth via the gaming and film industries, involves the design and crafting of virtual 3D environments, as well as characters and interactions within these settings, often accessed through a viewfinder-headset and other devices that facilitate an ‘immersive experience.’ Inevitably, certain conditions — for example access to technology and education — determine what kind of VR experiences are made. For this text I followed VR experiences being developed by those whose interests and experiences might not be so well represented in the film and gaming industries, but are nevertheless gaining recognition within the art world. It extends research begun at the ‘Closer’ workshop run by the School of Machines, Making and Make-Believe, Berlin which I attended in July 2017, supported by Create NSW’s 360 Visions virtual reality initiative.

More in Runway: Space, iss. 35, December 2017.

‘Current States of Minds,’ Altered Conference: Exploring Psychedelics and Altered States of Consciousness, Berlin 3-4 November 2017.

As a day long event with six speakers and around fifty guests at a bookshop in Neukölln last October, Altered bloomed into a fully fledged conference this year with 35 talks, workshops and rituals running over November 3-4. Around 400 attendees from around Europe and the world took over the Essentis Bio Hotel in the outer suburbs of Berlin, following on to a psychedelic cumbia afterparty in a Kreuzberg club.

Of late, there has been some discussion about a shift towards the mainstream acceptance of psychedelic substances and a renewed interest in psychedelic research. Organisations such as the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) since 1986 have been developing studies and contexts for the use of psychedelics and marijuana for the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and are campaigning for the revival of clinical trials. Elsewhere, festivals such as Boom (Portugal) and Burning Man (US) have been a catalyst for recreational experimentation with mind altering substances. More recently a Silicon Valley phenomena of microdosing psychedelics for general wellbeing has be taken up by tech and creative communities around the world.

In recent years a number of conferences have reflected this ‘Psychedelic Renaissance,’ such as Psychedelic Science (US), Breaking Convention (UK) and Entheo-Science (DE) yet according to Altered founder, Dax DeFranco, these gatherings tend to focus on institutional and clinical research. As a conference organised by those in the psychedelic community, Altered proposed to cater for a broader range of interests, with an emphasis on experience over academia. DeFranco has described the conference as a ‘psychedelic incubator’ drawing on what his conference co-organiser Amit Elan described as an eclectic mix of ‘witchy occultists, psychedelic academics, researchy laboratory chemists, or the queer shamanic scene, festival peeps, techies, clubbers’ (cited in Centauri 2017). The conference brought together scholars of the sciences and humanities alongside researchers in less orthodox fields of knowledge, such as astrology, traditional healing, witchcraft and ritual.

Opening ritual. Photo: Joana Dias

Presenters addressed the theme for this year’s conference, ‘Altered States, Crisis And Opportunity,’ as personal trauma and as wider political and ecological crises, with some discussion on how these are effectively entwined. Thus, if crises present opportunities for growth and change, psychedelics can play a role in healing and also altering our minds from the way they have been set according to overarching power structures and social conditioning.

The conference opened with a playful and disarming ritual, which set the mood for what followed. Elan’s opening address involved him confronting his fear of public speaking by delivering a spontaneous performance of ‘improvised gibberish,’ demonstrating how ‘our anxieties are also our teachers.’ The ceremony, conducted by conference presenters Julian Vayne, Nikki Wyrd and Moss Beynon Juckes seemed to poke fun at stereotypical characterisations of psychedelic users, such as the aging hippie wizard, neopagan witch and festival munter, to which we could also add the urban shaman and the microdosing freelancer. It’s not that that attendees would reject these identities, rather there was a self-effacing humour with which those whom had ‘come out of the pyschedelic closet’ acknowledged decades of stigmatisation and ridicule. Appropriately, this first ritual, involved coaxing bleary-eyed conference-goers to feel at ease, move around, meet each other and express themselves before tying a ribbon representing their intentions to the branches of a potted tree. We were then invited to partake in some sacred plant medicine — chocolate.

Opening ritual. Photo: Joana Dias

The session that immediately followed the opening featured Ciara Sherlock, founder of the Psychedelic Society, Ireland, and Stefana Bosse who is the ‘Head of Experience’ at the Psychedelic Society, UK, and who both co-facilitate Psychedelic Experience Weekends in the Netherlands. Set in a secluded and comfortable retreat, these weekends appeal to those who have little or no experience with such substances to experiment with locally sourced psilocybin mushrooms. ‘Tripping on truffles!,’ Bosse exclaimed. With backgrounds in therapy, Sherlock and Bosse’s presentation focused on harm reduction and introduced the concepts of ‘set, setting and substance,’ which many other presenters would also address. To summarise: ‘set’ refers to the mindset and intention of the person undertaking the psychedelic experience and ‘setting’ is the situation, the social and physical environmental, in which the ‘substance’ is taken. Drawing attention to the ‘elephant in the room,’ ie the bad trip, Sherlock and Bosse suggested that if all other conditions were favourable, a heavy dosage might have more beneficial psychological effects than a tentative and ultimately ineffective hit. As with several other speakers, Sherlock and Bosse emphasised the importance of integration or as Nikki Wyrd later put it, ‘settling,’ by which knowledge gained from tripping can be integrated back into daily life.

Ciara Sherlock and Stefana Bosse. Photo: Sangmin Lee

This notion was also picked up on in the following presentation by anthropologist and electronic musician, Giorgia Gaia, who encouraged her audience to ‘follow their own weird’ as she outlined her recent research about psy-paranormal experiences. Working with people who take the DMT based mixture Changa and Ketamine (‘Special K’), Gaia claimed that these substances can realtively easily produce paranormal effects, such as telepathy, encounters with other entities and interdimensional healing. Gaia’s interests led her to consider ‘break through experiences’ in which psychonauts claim to enter into another dimension where they often learn something about their psychological condition and, unconventional as it may seem to modern science, are able to heal their afflictions—a technique she described as ‘hacking the matrix.’

Giorgia Gaia Photo: Sangmin Lee

I connected this line of enquiry to the opening the session on day two by psychologist, Dharma teacher, therapist and activist Galia Tanay who questioned if clinical trials were actually an appropriate cultural context for using psychedelics for healing purposes. As a mindfulness practitioner working alongside Buddhist adepts, Tanay pointed out that knowledge systems that made use of altered states had been practiced and refined over thousands of years. She described conversations with researchers working in clinical trials who revealed that certain techniques such as chanting and singing, were indeed being used in such sessions, but ‘off the record’ because they did not conform with scientific methodologies. Her remarks raised pertinent questions about the ways in which Western science simultaneously adopts and marginalises other knowledge systems and thus perpetuates colonial practices.

Speakers such as Roslaind Stone and Réka Komáromi also spoke to issues of colonialism and race, specifically with regards to the ‘war on drugs.’ Presenting her research on Rastafarianism in Jamaica, ethnobotanist Komáromi, argued that the outlawing of plant medicines had the effect of criminalising traditional practitioners who were most often Black or People of Colour. Komáromi contextualised her talk by discussing the current use of cannabis in the West as a predominantly illegal but widely accepted drug undergoing commercialisation, which she juxtaposed with Rastafarians who approach the plant as a deity. This observation echoed with similar accounts relayed by veteran ethnobiologist, filmmaker and psychonaut, Robert ‘Rio’ Hahn recalling his long history working in the Amazon, Nepal and India. Unfortunately, Rio’s talk ran simultaneous to Darren Springer’s, an organiser and researcher among the African-Carribean community in UK, presenting on the indigenous usage of entheogenic plants on the African continent and diaspora. One criticism of the conference is that similar themed talks were often pitched against each other. Compounded by the awkwardness of moving between crowded rooms in a small boutique hotel, it was often easier to stay put.

Réka Komáromi. Photo: Sangmin Lee

Working closer to home, Patrick Everitt a scholar of philosophy and Western esotericism, emphasised European traditions for the cultivation and ceremonial use of psychedelic plants. Indeed, during a panel that directly addressed the conference theme, musician and self-described ‘renaissance man,’ Felipe Duarte foregrounded the special relationship humans have with plants, given that certain plants are able to manifest themselves in our minds. For me, this spoke to the emergence of multispecies studies in the fields of Humanities and Arts and how trends towards de-centring humans in recent social analysis might approach such relations and experiences as forms of knowledge.

The current significance of microdosing was notable given that one of the last conference sessions ran across all streams of the festival program. Dr James Fadiman and Dr Sophia Kord presented the latest findings from their ongoing research project monitoring 1500 microdosers of LSD, mushrooms and other psychedelics from 59 countries. Microdosing involves the ingestion of small amounts of psychoactive substances, so as not to produce psychedelic effects, but rather to target specific conditions and improve general health. Fadiman and Korb, Skyping in from different locations in the US, reported some curious findings that indicated that microdosing has accumulative effects; that is the longer one microdoses the less of a substance one needs to use to have the same effects, and that long-term microdosers reported relief from prolonged period pain and migraines. When they suggested that microdosing LSD seemed to be effective in managing depression but was not so good for anxiety, someone from the audience offered that from their own research, Ketamine was showing signs of success. Fadiman and Kord’s presentation prompted a long discussion about what effects were being measured, the metrics being used and possible placebo effects, demonstrating the kinds of interactions between clinical and informal research.

In such discussions, what stood out for me was the coming together of different generations of psychedelic researchers. Fadiman a psychologist, writer and co-founded Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, was involved in psychedelic studies at the International Foundation for Advanced Study in the 1960s which were brought to an abrupt halt. Having had his work effectively put on hold for the last forty years, he is now working alongside Korb a researcher from a younger generation, whose experience, interests and opinions belie a different set of concerns. It was a pattern that I traced across the conference, as younger researchers discovered and connected with an older generation, even if they were not necessarily using the same substances or were using them in different contexts or with different intentions.

Workshop. Photo: Sangmin Lee

I should emphasise that Altered was not simply a talk-fest. A series of workshops ran alongside the talks, which tended to emphasise the connection between mind and body, via techniques such as sensory deprivation, performance and spellcasting. An interesting inclusion was a workshop on ritual and worship by Berlin-based BDSM practitioner Caritia. Initially proposed to cater for around thirty participants, there were probably close to a hundred who showed up on the day and Caritia generously took all attendees through a series of exercises that emphasised intuition and ‘feeling.’ As expected, it drew on BDSM techniques of managing power and consent as a way of addressing trauma in a safe space. During the workshop we were instructed to make eye contact, pair up and perform gestures with strangers. The room was eventually split into two groups according to who was feeling dominant that afternoon and those who were more compliant. Soon after, I found myself thumping a fellow attendee around the chest and back for some minutes, before Caritia settled us down and demonstrated her ropework skills with an enthralled volunteer.

Also worth mentioning was the VR demonstration by computer scientist and game developer Bryan Duggan in the lobby and a Hypnogogic Light Room Experience in the cellar, to give a sense of the breadth and scope of the conference.

The Psychedelic Renaissance is obviously a multifaceted movement. With a growing number of people experimenting with psychedelics recreationally and therapeutically, alongside a revival of clinical trials, concerns about safety and harm reduction invariably arise. With this in mind, Rosalind Stone drew attention to websites such as drugsand.me designed to make accessible to young people ‘the kinds of information that should be on the packaging.’ Tensions were also evident between those engaging altered states to explore their consciousness and to feel more interconnected with the world around them, and for those, such as the stereotypical microdosing freelancer, using psychedelics as part of a toolkit for late liberalism’s modes of production. Responding to such criticisms on Psychedelic Frontier (2017), Fadiman stated:
As for the idea that people who microdose support capitalism, it is hard to fault people who wish to enjoy their work more, have healthier diets, be more likely to do exercise and meditation and be less likely to use standard pharmacological medications. To say they are only doing so in capitalist countries is nonsense. We have similar reports from all over the world independent of what form their government is taking. Improving the quality of your life may be a political act, but it is not an ideological one.

Chillout lounge. Photo: Sangmin Lee

One might presume that these different approaches converge when it comes to advocacy and activism. Yet, while the healing potential of psychedelics might be the emphasis of activists campaigning for the legalisation of such substances, there are those in the community that see it as a fundamental right to self-administer psychedelics in order to exercise one’s ‘cognitive liberty.’

If there is a stigma about the use of drugs in the pursuit of knowledge, it is important to emphasise figures such as Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin and more recently Paul Preciado who have all self-administered drugs experimentally towards their contributions to Western thought. Although concerns of addiction do arise, this is certainly not an affliction exclusive to unregulated substances and I’d venture that all Altered attendees would agree that prohibition is not the solution. Rather, among consciousness explorers and recreational enthusiasts, experimenting and testing one’s limits is all part of the journey to becoming self-aware, realising one’s agency and ultimately one’s responsibilities.

Centauri, Prox, 2017. ‘Altered States: Altered 2017 Organizers Amit Elan and Dax DeFranco Share Information On the Conference, Human Nature, and Psychedelics.’ Inside the Rift, 12 October.

Psychedelic Frontier, 2017. ‘James Fadiman Discusses the Many Benefits of Microdosing.’ 26 October.

‘Art Object as Counter-fetish in Otobong Nkanga’s Carved To Flow, Documenta 14,’ Runway

Otobong Nkanga, ‘Carved to Flow’, Documenta 14, Athens, 2017. Photo: Sumugan Sivanesan

Carved to Flow
Otobong Nkanga’s Carved to Flow (2017) is a process-based research project and enterprise encompassing performance, installation and socially engaged methodologies. Its focus is the production, distribution and sale of a natural soap bar, o 8, made up of seven oils that ‘nourish the skin’ sourced from regions that encompass the Mediterranean, North and West Africa and the Middle East. The oils are combined with water, lye and charcoal which according to Nkanga prompts us to ‘think about spaces that are actually charred’; places that are depleted of resources, riven by war, impacted by ecological shifts, toxicity and other such traumas that force people to move. The histories, knowledges and stories that are associated with these places travel with the ‘nourishing oils’ that are combined into o 8 and are according to the artist, ‘part and parcel’ of a ‘taste palate’ that connects us.

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‘Ritual As Resistance, Transmediale 2017,’ Runway

‘Ritual Casualty 003.’ Black Quantum Futurism, Langenbeck-Virchow-Haus, Humbolt University, Transmediale, 2017.

This year marked thirty years of Transmediale, the premier festival of (post)digital culture and aesthetics held annually in Berlin at Haus der Kulturen der Welt and other venues. Founded as VideoFilmFest in 1988 to showcase a media format that had been phased out of the Berlin International Film Festival and poised at the cusp of the ‘digital revolution,’ the festival embraced developments and experiments in computer animation, multimedia, games and net-art to become a truly ‘transmedia’ event by the late 1990s. My introduction to Transmediale came via my involvement in Electrofringe, an annual festival of emerging media arts which I co-directed in 2005 and 2006. Over these years both festivals exchanged screening programs and I attended Transmediale in 2006 to present on a panel and participate in an artist-run satellite project, Transit Lounge, a Berlin–Australia exchange. Which is to say, in the first decade of the World Wide Web, Transmediale was supportive of the kinds of independent experimental practices and networks proliferating with the onset of web-based culture. By then, Transmediale had expanded to include a music program, Club Transmediale, which is now run as a distinct yet interconnected festival, CTM, showcasing contemporary electronic and digital music alongside experimental sound and club cultures. As such, the first weekend in February has become a red letter date for media artists, technologists, theorists and enthusiasts from the world over to gather in Berlin.

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‘Ella Barclay: A feeling of lost connections,’ Artlink: Parallel Universe, December 2016.

‘The nerds have got to stop working for the thugs.’ Ella Barclay 2016, Photograph.
Ella Barclay’s first institutional solo exhibition, I Had To Do It at UTS Gallery, is entered down a long darkened corridor. Blinds pulled down over the gallery’s floor‐to‐ceiling windows, obstruct the light and sway to the air-conditioning. Turning the corner one encounters a cluster of five scrunched‐up paper objects accompanied by a series of pale blue sculptural squiggles, Greetings Program (best left unsaid)(2016). The large sheets, washed with violet, pale blue and yellow watercolour, are overlaid with erratic note‐taking. The barely legible handwriting leads the eye across the folds and contours of the paper. Hand‐cut and coloured letterforms are pasted onto the sheets, peeling away at the edges. I can make out a single phrase: “Make them suffer”.

Read in Artlink: Parallel Universe, iss. 36, no. 4, December 2016.