‘Eine Frage schwarzer Liquidität’, Springerin: originalcopy 02/2018

Jonathan Beller delivering his keynote Derivative Living, Transmediale, Haus der Kulturen der Welt 2018. Photo: Adam Berry

A Question of Black Liquidity: Critical Race Media Theory @ Transmediale: Face Value  Berlin, 31 January–4 February 2018
Published in deutsch, in English below.

‘Face Value’ marked an intersectional turn for Transmediale, Berlin’s premier festival of media arts and digital culture, with a program poised to address relations of class, gender and race built into media and technology systems.

In the first of the festival’s keynote lectures, feminist postcolonial scholar Françiose Vergès elaborated on her recent text about the ‘Racial Capitalocene’, drawing on the work of influential Black thinker Cederic J. Robinson. Robinson’s critique of capitalism’s appropriation of Black labor power as ‘constant capital’(i) was picked up by Jonathan Beller in his keynote, ‘Derivative Living,’ the following night. Alongside Lisa Nakamura, another keynote speaker at this year’s Transmediale and Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, who featured at the festival last year, their work announces a field of critical race media theory.

Beller’s mostly pessimistic analysis of life under a regime of ‘computational racial capitalism’ recalls Robinson’s findings that capitalism arose from conditions that were already racializing the peoples of feudal Europe. These modes of differentiation expanded with European colonialism, leading to the ‘obligatory’ development of the negro slave, whose labor power was necessary for the emergent world economy.

The racialized character of labor remains, most obviously as structural global inequalities continue to produce differentials in globalised labor markets, and thus supply ‘cheap labor’ in the former colonized parts of the world. More recently, forms of immaterial labor and communicative capitalism have flourished in the wake of social media which has come to dominate our modes of representation. Beller notes that platforms such as Facebook, have established a distributed means of production that exploit our affective, attentional and metabolic capacities as ‘deterritorialized factories’ and he is critical of such processes of ‘digitization’ which often operate under the guise of digital culture.

Record keeping is historically a racialising, gendering and class-defining process of differentiation; of classifying people as quantities, statistics, resources and assets. Information is not value-neutral, nor are the media-technological formations by which it is analysed, circulated and proliferated independent of ideology. ‘Colonialism merely gives way to computational colonialism,’ is how Beller describes the simultaneous processes of ‘informationization, computerization and financialization’ undertaken by platforms which are intensified by the centralization of information with supranational media-technology corporations such as Google and Facebook, and the concentration of financial power with banks and states. Echoing Robinson, he claims all of us are rendered as fixed capital by a totalizing system of computational capitalism.

Surprisingly, Beller glimpses some potential for emancipation in recent experiments with these very processes, in particular the activities of the Economic Space Agency (ECSA), a start-up of sorts developing alternative finance on the blockchain-based platform Ethereum. Blockchain, an innovation of the vanguard cryptocurrency Bitcoin, is a ‘trustless’ computational means of validating and securing transactions on a public ledger that is relayed across a network, removing the need for a centralising authority like a bank. Ethereum is effectively the first blockchain-based distributed computing operating system, enabling developers to build applications for it that make use of smart-contracts—digital protocols which execute and enforce agreed-upon tasks, and that are arguably more secure in guaranteeing transactions than methods vulnerable to human foibles. Without recourse to an overseeing authority, on Ethereum there is an opportunity to ‘open-source finance.’ ECSA’s ‘Space program’ proposes to do this by facilitating the ‘interoperation of a plurality of micro-economies’ in new economic space. Participating ‘econauts’ would determine their own terms of value creation, issue tokens or cryptocurrencies to leverage their activities and engage in trade to support other like-minded communities. Making use of ubiquitous computing ‘everyday people’ could take control of their financialization and thus according to ECSA, ‘the design of economic space becomes a means of collective self-expression.’(ii)

‘Don’t take things at face value,’ cautioned Transmediale’s artistic director Kristoffer Gansing at the festival press preview. So it would be prudent to consider who stands to profit from developments in speculative computational finance. Legal scholar Robert Herian(iii) warns us to be wary of those using technological innovation to mask motives that differ from those whom they claim it will benefit. For entrepreneurs, the attraction of ‘disruptive’ technologies such as blockchain lies in their capacity to open up new markets and competition, and technological innovation is a means to gain advantages over competitors. Contrary to the dream of decentralisation and diversity, market success tends towards the consolidation of power and economic monopolization, so Herian argues, rather than usurp the status quo, disruption in markets is most often ‘radically conservative.’

Cedric Robinson reminds us that the foundational figure of capitalism’s world system was not the worker but the slave. The profit motive implies that many of those who participate in liquidity and trade simply want to get rich, so would not those who come to power in alternative economies reproduce the same violence on which capitalism is predicated? Might the self-financialization of social activism, as Beller suggests with the example of Black Lives Matter, deepen the dynamics of the gig economy which commandeers self-expression as market differentiation, as social competition and ultimately unfreedom? As one respondent from the audience pointedly asked: ‘Where does the Black body enter into cryptocurrency other than being a client in jail?’(iv)

Such anxieties underpinned several discussions at Transmediale that were attentive to who was enabled to speak and who was privileged enough to attend. Undoubtedly these concerns trouble all of us ‘non-Blacks’ engaged with Black thought. I am taken by the writing of another festival participant Aria Dean, whose ‘Notes on Blacceleration’ locates a strain of radical Black thinking which mobilizes and accelerates Black peoples’ long history as living capital and speculative value; as those historically cast as sub-human re-make themselves as inhuman, counter-human and anti-human in their efforts to move with, through and beyond capitalism’s modes of repression and alienation. Learning from these histories and practices, we might be reminded in our attempts to wrest control of derivative living that social life need not be a competition, lest it become yet another race to the bottom.

i Cederic J. Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition, Zed Press, London (1983).

ii  See Economic Space Agency (ECSA), ‘On Intensive Self-issuance: Economic Space Agency and the Space Platform’, in: Gloerich, Lovink, de Vries (eds), MoneyLab Reader 2: Overcoming the Hype, Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam (2018).

iii See Robert Herian, ‘Blockchain and the Distributed Reproduction of Capitalist Class Power’, in: Gloerich, Lovink, de Vries (eds), MoneyLab Reader #2: Overcoming the Hype, Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam (2018).

iv An audio recording of Beller’s keynote is archived on Transmediale’s website.

Escaping the Arts of Governing: Notes on Jonas Staal’s PhD Defense, Temporary Art Review

Jonas Staal’s PhD Defense, Great Auditorium, Leiden University Photo: Ruben Hamelink

Escaping the Arts of Governing: Notes on Jonas Staal’s PhD Defense

Jonas Staal declares himself to be a propaganda artist. Given the pressures to professionalize, it is unusual for an artist to describe themselves with a term often associated with authoritarianism. Yet, unlike many artists passing through formal art education, Staal has no interest in reflecting and commenting on the ambiguities of the world, but rather proposes to change it.

More at Temporary Art Review

‘Current States of Minds,’ Altered Conference: Exploring Psychedelics and Altered States of Consciousness, Berlin 3-4 November 2017.

As a day long event with six speakers and around fifty guests at a bookshop in Neukölln last October, Altered bloomed into a fully fledged conference this year with 35 talks, workshops and rituals running over November 3-4. Around 400 attendees from around Europe and the world took over the Essentis Bio Hotel in the outer suburbs of Berlin, following on to a psychedelic cumbia afterparty in a Kreuzberg club.

Of late, there has been some discussion about a shift towards the mainstream acceptance of psychedelic substances and a renewed interest in psychedelic research. Organisations such as the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) since 1986 have been developing studies and contexts for the use of psychedelics and marijuana for the treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and are campaigning for the revival of clinical trials. Elsewhere, festivals such as Boom (Portugal) and Burning Man (US) have been a catalyst for recreational experimentation with mind altering substances. More recently a Silicon Valley phenomena of microdosing psychedelics for general wellbeing has be taken up by tech and creative communities around the world.

In recent years a number of conferences have reflected this ‘Psychedelic Renaissance,’ such as Psychedelic Science (US), Breaking Convention (UK) and Entheo-Science (DE) yet according to Altered founder, Dax DeFranco, these gatherings tend to focus on institutional and clinical research. As a conference organised by those in the psychedelic community, Altered proposed to cater for a broader range of interests, with an emphasis on experience over academia. DeFranco has described the conference as a ‘psychedelic incubator’ drawing on what his conference co-organiser Amit Elan described as an eclectic mix of ‘witchy occultists, psychedelic academics, researchy laboratory chemists, or the queer shamanic scene, festival peeps, techies, clubbers’ (cited in Centauri 2017). The conference brought together scholars of the sciences and humanities alongside researchers in less orthodox fields of knowledge, such as astrology, traditional healing, witchcraft and ritual.

Opening ritual. Photo: Joana Dias

Presenters addressed the theme for this year’s conference, ‘Altered States, Crisis And Opportunity,’ as personal trauma and as wider political and ecological crises, with some discussion on how these are effectively entwined. Thus, if crises present opportunities for growth and change, psychedelics can play a role in healing and also altering our minds from the way they have been set according to overarching power structures and social conditioning.

The conference opened with a playful and disarming ritual, which set the mood for what followed. Elan’s opening address involved him confronting his fear of public speaking by delivering a spontaneous performance of ‘improvised gibberish,’ demonstrating how ‘our anxieties are also our teachers.’ The ceremony, conducted by conference presenters Julian Vayne, Nikki Wyrd and Moss Beynon Juckes seemed to poke fun at stereotypical characterisations of psychedelic users, such as the aging hippie wizard, neopagan witch and festival munter, to which we could also add the urban shaman and the microdosing freelancer. It’s not that that attendees would reject these identities, rather there was a self-effacing humour with which those whom had ‘come out of the pyschedelic closet’ acknowledged decades of stigmatisation and ridicule. Appropriately, this first ritual, involved coaxing bleary-eyed conference-goers to feel at ease, move around, meet each other and express themselves before tying a ribbon representing their intentions to the branches of a potted tree. We were then invited to partake in some sacred plant medicine — chocolate.

Opening ritual. Photo: Joana Dias

The session that immediately followed the opening featured Ciara Sherlock, founder of the Psychedelic Society, Ireland, and Stefana Bosse who is the ‘Head of Experience’ at the Psychedelic Society, UK, and who both co-facilitate Psychedelic Experience Weekends in the Netherlands. Set in a secluded and comfortable retreat, these weekends appeal to those who have little or no experience with such substances to experiment with locally sourced psilocybin mushrooms. ‘Tripping on truffles!,’ Bosse exclaimed. With backgrounds in therapy, Sherlock and Bosse’s presentation focused on harm reduction and introduced the concepts of ‘set, setting and substance,’ which many other presenters would also address. To summarise: ‘set’ refers to the mindset and intention of the person undertaking the psychedelic experience and ‘setting’ is the situation, the social and physical environmental, in which the ‘substance’ is taken. Drawing attention to the ‘elephant in the room,’ ie the bad trip, Sherlock and Bosse suggested that if all other conditions were favourable, a heavy dosage might have more beneficial psychological effects than a tentative and ultimately ineffective hit. As with several other speakers, Sherlock and Bosse emphasised the importance of integration or as Nikki Wyrd later put it, ‘settling,’ by which knowledge gained from tripping can be integrated back into daily life.

Ciara Sherlock and Stefana Bosse. Photo: Sangmin Lee

This notion was also picked up on in the following presentation by anthropologist and electronic musician, Giorgia Gaia, who encouraged her audience to ‘follow their own weird’ as she outlined her recent research about psy-paranormal experiences. Working with people who take the DMT based mixture Changa and Ketamine (‘Special K’), Gaia claimed that these substances can realtively easily produce paranormal effects, such as telepathy, encounters with other entities and interdimensional healing. Gaia’s interests led her to consider ‘break through experiences’ in which psychonauts claim to enter into another dimension where they often learn something about their psychological condition and, unconventional as it may seem to modern science, are able to heal their afflictions—a technique she described as ‘hacking the matrix.’

Giorgia Gaia Photo: Sangmin Lee

I connected this line of enquiry to the opening the session on day two by psychologist, Dharma teacher, therapist and activist Galia Tanay who questioned if clinical trials were actually an appropriate cultural context for using psychedelics for healing purposes. As a mindfulness practitioner working alongside Buddhist adepts, Tanay pointed out that knowledge systems that made use of altered states had been practiced and refined over thousands of years. She described conversations with researchers working in clinical trials who revealed that certain techniques such as chanting and singing, were indeed being used in such sessions, but ‘off the record’ because they did not conform with scientific methodologies. Her remarks raised pertinent questions about the ways in which Western science simultaneously adopts and marginalises other knowledge systems and thus perpetuates colonial practices.

Speakers such as Roslaind Stone and Réka Komáromi also spoke to issues of colonialism and race, specifically with regards to the ‘war on drugs.’ Presenting her research on Rastafarianism in Jamaica, ethnobotanist Komáromi, argued that the outlawing of plant medicines had the effect of criminalising traditional practitioners who were most often Black or People of Colour. Komáromi contextualised her talk by discussing the current use of cannabis in the West as a predominantly illegal but widely accepted drug undergoing commercialisation, which she juxtaposed with Rastafarians who approach the plant as a deity. This observation echoed with similar accounts relayed by veteran ethnobiologist, filmmaker and psychonaut, Robert ‘Rio’ Hahn recalling his long history working in the Amazon, Nepal and India. Unfortunately, Rio’s talk ran simultaneous to Darren Springer’s, an organiser and researcher among the African-Carribean community in UK, presenting on the indigenous usage of entheogenic plants on the African continent and diaspora. One criticism of the conference is that similar themed talks were often pitched against each other. Compounded by the awkwardness of moving between crowded rooms in a small boutique hotel, it was often easier to stay put.

Réka Komáromi. Photo: Sangmin Lee

Working closer to home, Patrick Everitt a scholar of philosophy and Western esotericism, emphasised European traditions for the cultivation and ceremonial use of psychedelic plants. Indeed, during a panel that directly addressed the conference theme, musician and self-described ‘renaissance man,’ Felipe Duarte foregrounded the special relationship humans have with plants, given that certain plants are able to manifest themselves in our minds. For me, this spoke to the emergence of multispecies studies in the fields of Humanities and Arts and how trends towards de-centring humans in recent social analysis might approach such relations and experiences as forms of knowledge.

The current significance of microdosing was notable given that one of the last conference sessions ran across all streams of the festival program. Dr James Fadiman and Dr Sophia Kord presented the latest findings from their ongoing research project monitoring 1500 microdosers of LSD, mushrooms and other psychedelics from 59 countries. Microdosing involves the ingestion of small amounts of psychoactive substances, so as not to produce psychedelic effects, but rather to target specific conditions and improve general health. Fadiman and Korb, Skyping in from different locations in the US, reported some curious findings that indicated that microdosing has accumulative effects; that is the longer one microdoses the less of a substance one needs to use to have the same effects, and that long-term microdosers reported relief from prolonged period pain and migraines. When they suggested that microdosing LSD seemed to be effective in managing depression but was not so good for anxiety, someone from the audience offered that from their own research, Ketamine was showing signs of success. Fadiman and Kord’s presentation prompted a long discussion about what effects were being measured, the metrics being used and possible placebo effects, demonstrating the kinds of interactions between clinical and informal research.

In such discussions, what stood out for me was the coming together of different generations of psychedelic researchers. Fadiman a psychologist, writer and co-founded Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, was involved in psychedelic studies at the International Foundation for Advanced Study in the 1960s which were brought to an abrupt halt. Having had his work effectively put on hold for the last forty years, he is now working alongside Korb a researcher from a younger generation, whose experience, interests and opinions belie a different set of concerns. It was a pattern that I traced across the conference, as younger researchers discovered and connected with an older generation, even if they were not necessarily using the same substances or were using them in different contexts or with different intentions.

Workshop. Photo: Sangmin Lee

I should emphasise that Altered was not simply a talk-fest. A series of workshops ran alongside the talks, which tended to emphasise the connection between mind and body, via techniques such as sensory deprivation, performance and spellcasting. An interesting inclusion was a workshop on ritual and worship by Berlin-based BDSM practitioner Caritia. Initially proposed to cater for around thirty participants, there were probably close to a hundred who showed up on the day and Caritia generously took all attendees through a series of exercises that emphasised intuition and ‘feeling.’ As expected, it drew on BDSM techniques of managing power and consent as a way of addressing trauma in a safe space. During the workshop we were instructed to make eye contact, pair up and perform gestures with strangers. The room was eventually split into two groups according to who was feeling dominant that afternoon and those who were more compliant. Soon after, I found myself thumping a fellow attendee around the chest and back for some minutes, before Caritia settled us down and demonstrated her ropework skills with an enthralled volunteer.

Also worth mentioning was the VR demonstration by computer scientist and game developer Bryan Duggan in the lobby and a Hypnogogic Light Room Experience in the cellar, to give a sense of the breadth and scope of the conference.

The Psychedelic Renaissance is obviously a multifaceted movement. With a growing number of people experimenting with psychedelics recreationally and therapeutically, alongside a revival of clinical trials, concerns about safety and harm reduction invariably arise. With this in mind, Rosalind Stone drew attention to websites such as drugsand.me designed to make accessible to young people ‘the kinds of information that should be on the packaging.’ Tensions were also evident between those engaging altered states to explore their consciousness and to feel more interconnected with the world around them, and for those, such as the stereotypical microdosing freelancer, using psychedelics as part of a toolkit for late liberalism’s modes of production. Responding to such criticisms on Psychedelic Frontier (2017), Fadiman stated:
As for the idea that people who microdose support capitalism, it is hard to fault people who wish to enjoy their work more, have healthier diets, be more likely to do exercise and meditation and be less likely to use standard pharmacological medications. To say they are only doing so in capitalist countries is nonsense. We have similar reports from all over the world independent of what form their government is taking. Improving the quality of your life may be a political act, but it is not an ideological one.

Chillout lounge. Photo: Sangmin Lee

One might presume that these different approaches converge when it comes to advocacy and activism. Yet, while the healing potential of psychedelics might be the emphasis of activists campaigning for the legalisation of such substances, there are those in the community that see it as a fundamental right to self-administer psychedelics in order to exercise one’s ‘cognitive liberty.’

If there is a stigma about the use of drugs in the pursuit of knowledge, it is important to emphasise figures such as Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin and more recently Paul Preciado who have all self-administered drugs experimentally towards their contributions to Western thought. Although concerns of addiction do arise, this is certainly not an affliction exclusive to unregulated substances and I’d venture that all Altered attendees would agree that prohibition is not the solution. Rather, among consciousness explorers and recreational enthusiasts, experimenting and testing one’s limits is all part of the journey to becoming self-aware, realising one’s agency and ultimately one’s responsibilities.

Centauri, Prox, 2017. ‘Altered States: Altered 2017 Organizers Amit Elan and Dax DeFranco Share Information On the Conference, Human Nature, and Psychedelics.’ Inside the Rift, 12 October.

Psychedelic Frontier, 2017. ‘James Fadiman Discusses the Many Benefits of Microdosing.’ 26 October.

Film By Other Means: Monument Group at no.w.here, ‘Forcible Frames’

I wanted to reflect briefly on last Tuesday’s workshop with the Monument Group: Four Faces of Omarska. In their introduction, Jelena Petrović and Milica Tomić described the Monument Group/Grupa Spomenik as a collective who convened ‘working groups’ to engage with an archive of materials and histories concerned with the war in former Yugoslavia, and indicated social sculpture as their underlying methodology.

The working group, Four Faces of Omarska, is concerned with a specific geopoliticised site that has passed through four distinct phases, overlaying it with multiple co-existing narratives. Omarska is simultaneously:
  1. a metal deposit in a region of former the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina that emerged after the war as part of the (ethnically cleansed) Republika Srpska.
  2. the site of the Omarska concentration camp which lasted from May–August 1992, facilitating the genocide of thousands of Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks) whose remains are still on the site.
  3. a current mining complex operated by the steel manufacturing conglomerate ArcelorMittel.
  4.  a film set for the World War I ‘ethno-historical blockbuster’ St George Slays the Dragon (2009), which received significant funding from the the governments of the Republika Srpska and Serbia. 
We were given a hasty overview of the archive, as an already complex and contested history that I think most of us felt uncomfortable and unqualified to speak about. However, Jelena and Milica signalled some ways for us to engage with this difficult material. ‘Film by other means’ emerged as one such strategy derived from a supplied text Kapo from Omarska (2009) by the film theorist Pavle Levi in which he reasons his decision not to watch St George Slays the Dragon as an ethical imperative, declaring ‘In the name of cinema, I have not seen and will not see this film’. The Four Faces of Omarska approached Levi’s text as a set of instructions for a work of conceptual art, which they drew in relation to a performance art piece devised by film director Milčo Mančevski, 1’74”. In his instructions for the piece Mančevski deconstructs a common understanding of cinema with a set of questions that might also speak to structuralist/materialist film practices, that I had transcribed as: 
  • Does film have to be exposed? 
  • Does film have to be screened? 
  • Does film have to be tape (celluloid)? 
  • Does film have to have a story? 
  • Does film have to exist in order to be a film? 
Compelled by Levi’s refusal to watch St George Slays the Dragon, the working group is urged to find ‘the images behind the images we reject to watch.’

If cinema is understood to be the definitive language of the twentieth century, the idea of ‘film by other means’ suggests another approach to cameraless film making, based on the deconstruction of the common language of film itself. Departing from the formalist notion of film making as sculpting light in time and space, cinema might also be understood as an articulation of actions, affects and duration. As such, the camera is no longer the principle device (or signifier) that brings cinema into being, but rather it is the artist-audience as an apparatus that frame, edit and co-produce the unfolding cinematic event.

The previous day’s exercise, Following Piece and Looking and Listening, effectively instructed the participant to behave as a camera and concluded by linking the act of observing to speech. The working groups formed for the Four Faces of Omarska were informed by a notion of ‘collective editing’, or rather the act of speech that drives the cinematic event, suggesting a discursive form of cinema. This understanding of cinema as a practice emphasises acts of translation, interpretation, debate and consensus.

The results of our workshop with the Monument Group’s Four Faces of Omarska were presented to the public as a set of separate, but interrelated vignettes. These encompassed interviews that veered towards interrogation, a concept for an actual film, performative actions and discussions of very specific aspects of the archive that as a group we had accessed very fleetingly. Furthermore it became apparent that this ‘act of cinema’ could only be realised with an audience — those outside the processes being presented, that nevertheless played an active role in the event’s becoming. The exchanges between the co-producers of the event — the sociability between performer and audience — is then the material of a discursive cinema.

Continuing to think through a discourse of cinema, what might a notion of discursive cinema bring to bear on the opposing and diverging threads of film history and praxis; as documentary, as drama and representation, and as investigations of its material and structural qualities?

Milica Tomic. 2010. Four Faces of Omarska: Memorial as a Social Sculpture – Artwork as Common Good and Property.
Grupa Spomenik/Monument Group.
Pavle Levi. 2009. Kapo from Omarska.

Published no-w-here Open Studio Blog, 6 July 2013.

Poetics of Failure: A correspondence with Joaquin Segura

Exercises on Selective Mutism 2012. (Installation view) Handmade protest banners, wood, rope, steel wire & latex paint

SS: In a recent interview with Brett W Schultz you state:

“As I've made clear in the past, I don't really believe in the notion of 'identity' or the idea of 'nation', which I find totally laughable and heartwarmingly passé. I'm convinced that these are totally outdated models of understanding our differences and similarities, expanding our already immense and irreconcilable cultural abysses instead of bringing them together, thus resulting in their total dispersion among the complex and extremely arbitrary weaving of contemporary social nucleii. Pretty much a frankly bad joke, if I may say so. The fact that I live and work in Mexico is a completely random geographical and temporal factor, which of course affects what I think and what I do, but I've chosen not to be limited by this specific circumstance. In the past, while working abroad, I've taken advantage of this preconception of Mexico—to be more exact, pretty much all of Latin America—as one of the last barbaric bastions of western civilization. Totally amusing, if you ask me about it. I consider my practice to be, among other things, a gonzo strategy of deceit: there are quite a few roles you can adopt in this approach that may actually reveal themselves to be a privileged vantage point. In my experience, the gentle savage is one of the most effective ones to establish my standing position. Thus, I'm a Mexican artist if I need it to prove my point. If it's not necessary in a specific circumstance, I'm not. Quite simple, I think. Said in other words, it's just an ace I can play to win a particular match. It has worked so far, at least for me.” [1]

I am also very interested in the idea of postnationalism that you refer to in the above quote, and am trying to a get a sense of the idea as it exists beyond political theory. I know that when I'm working in Sydney I tend to feel quite confined, entrapped. Like you, I take no truck in the notion of 'identity' or 'nation', however sometimes when I'm working abroad I have a sense of being 'made in Australia', in that certain events and ideas have shaped the concerns that I find myself returning to.

JS: I’ve spent much time lately thinking about those very notions you touch on. Overall, I think the importance we consciously or unconsciously convey to localisms may be, in the end, a survival strategy. It may very well represent a desperate attempt to rely on uniqueness as an exchange token in the market of symbolic capital. In other words, to make a rather fragmented context mean something somehow. In the end, perhaps we’ll be able to see it from a distance and perceive that it always was about totalitarian systems of thought — in every sense you can possibly imagine. This is exactly what I refer to when stating that perhaps we must adopt our cultural differences and use them as a departure point to attempt to empathize with everyone else. Which may very well be a botched battle from the start, but hey, we can try and no one can blame us for that.

Untitled 2012 from the series The Messiah Syndrome

Along with postnationalism, the idea of failed states is one that has been haunting me over the past few years. I consider my work to be a sketch on some sort of poetics of failure and disenchantment. There are a few key concepts that I’ve briefly incorporated along this glorification of downfall: impossibility, absurd and nonsense as vital driving force behind any human act. Wherever this may have taken me, I’m always experiencing a deep feeling of disenfranchisement; not as something I’ve been pushed to but as a strongly personal choice. After all, I may be more interested on the sole existence of these concepts as an idea. I’ve grown sick of the idea of contemporary art as a tool or platform striving towards meaningful social change. Not at all. I don’t believe in change, I believe in failure. I’m strongly convinced that if you’re actually interested in bringing down any social structure you should take the streets and torch a car — not work within the safe limits of a studio, producing commodified objects that are easily integrated into a market dynamic that actually relies on harsh ‘critique’ to reinforce itself.

I think my work is, indeed, an attempt to deceive, understood as an effort to get rid of the sociopolitical framework that took us — or me at least — to this point in history.

SS: You’ve exhibited in a number of prestigious shows, received several prizes and garnered international acclaim, yet when Laura and I contacted the Mexican consulate here in an attempt to bring you out as a representative of the country's ‘dynamic contemporary arts scene’ we suspect you weren't the kind of artist they had in mind.

JS: Quite fair. I could perfectly imagine that. It would be totally natural as I do think I’m not really the artist I myself expected to be.

I believe the situation is of course far more complex and I view it as the logical outcome of the strategy I’ve devised over the past few years. I think I am now where I wanted to be some time ago. My practice relies on understanding legitimating structures, the way they’re built and how they operate. The next step is to use these conjectures – however deep or superficial they may prove – to cause a collision within the structure itself. I’m absolutely repelled by the idea of state and institution. I cannot deny that I’ve received support from institutional structures in the past – and continue to do so – but I don’t see this as a contradiction to what I’m stating in these few lines. I think it is one of the most pressing duties of a contemporary artist nowadays: confront, discomfort and challenge. Although I can always wear a mariachi hat and drink my brains out if strictly necessary.

For the Grace of God 2012

SS: I'd like to discuss how artists operate in largely self-determined ways, but are obliged to make certain concessions in order to secure institutional support. Certainly there are a number of artists that have come out of Mexico over the last decade that have achieved international acclaim that contribute to the perception of the country as an incubator for subversive or confrontational practices. Immediately I think of Teresa Margolles and Yoshua Okón, alongside Santiago Sierra when he was there in the 1990s. It gives the impression that the Mexican art world has a lot of game, however it seems works that overtly critique the ironies and extremes of contemporary Mexican life still ruffle some feathers?

JS: My generation seems to be located at this unbelievably complex point in which we are situated in a privileged position where we are beginning to enjoy a fair part of the attention the artists you very well mention attracted initially because of their provocative modus operandi, not only practice-wise, but as icons of rupture. It’s just that it turns out this has not been as positive as it sounds. I can see that the excessive attention brought down on Mexican contemporary art in the past few years has contributed to what I think is a certain loss of edge; at least in the younger artists that came after — and from which I’m undeniably part of, willingly or not. Think of it as the unavoidable hangover after a rather eventful night out. A process of normalisation; but I think that happens to any particular energy that might have taken you by surprise at a certain time.

Truth is you can’t really have fun all the time. There’s a moment in which you are forced to stop and reflect; this may very well be the actual point where we failed as a generation. Yes, the artists you mention all paved the way but there is one point when my generation should have taken command, or at least share their provocative mindsets, not just get the free drinks. I think we missed that critical moment – perhaps it happened over a museum cocktail or during the annual Mexico City art fair-; even though, it’s definitely not too late. I think there are still a rather solid group of artists sharing this set of concerns: think of Artemio, Ruben Gutierrez, or younger artists like Cristian Franco or Edgar Cobian. These are some of the most cynical, interesting and challenging people over there. They’re just not too interested in the spotlight but boy, are they interested in fucking stuff up. Talk about professional suicide, and then again, maybe not. Maybe we’re part of the same problem, just sold in a different package.

SS: Obviously, different strokes appeal to different folks and art audiences are as varied as the artists they endorse. There has been a buzz around contemporary art in Mexico in recent years. Cuauhtémoc Medina, who was in Australia earlier this year (2012) to discuss his curatorial projects including this year's Manifesta, has also been subject to your critical provocations? Could you describe what happened?

JS: This is a long story, and a rather funny one. I still believe that the contemporary art apparatus in Mexico has definitely a univocal operating procedure. What is meant to be a dialogue doesn’t really constitute one; it’s pretty much about implanting standards through pontification and submission. A few years back, me and a fellow young artist with whom I used to collaborate back then talked a lot about this; how the figure of the few Mexican art critics we had were pretty much quasi-religious icons; untouchable and unattainable, with the power to demolish or project a young artist’s career to the stratosphere with the almighty touch of their magnanimous pens and rather ambiguous writings. This, rather than frustrating, was absolutely amusing to me. I’ve always been interested in the nature of any form of power, its inner workings and how it is obtained. So we were on a cigarette break during the installation of Damien Hirst’s first Mexican show where we both functioned as glorified laborers and we came up with this idea of making a Buddha sculpture in the likeness of Cuauhtémoc Medina, who as you very well mention, is a Mexican curator with a highly international profile, in Latin America and pretty much everywhere else. This was because, at least to us, he was the most visible face of this apparatus we were trying to understand and challenge. What follows next could take up the whole extension of this interview, so I won’t go into any further detail, but it was rather revealing. Cuauhtémoc got the joke after some time and he even had one of those over at his place at some point. I don’t know if he still does. In the name of truth, he wasn’t delighted at all when all this happened, but I guess he thought it over and understood our exact point: we live among constructs and even when some may be taken as absolute truths, there’s nothing like that anywhere. The position he occupies is just one of those constructions. It was really never personal. Absolutely everything is there to be challenged, denied and taken down. At any cost.

Cuauhtémoc Buddha 2006 Joaquin Segura & Renato Garza Collaboration

SS: You are also on record for being critical of the international art figure Gabriel Orozco for claiming to be a Mexican? For me your position on 'being Mexican' is somewhat confusing. In a recent email you indicated that you think it was time for you to get out of Mexico for a while. Why so? Is Mexico still home?

JS: I think being Mexican is not really what is confusing; Mexico is. Call it a love-relationship if you will, but I’m convinced that the whole place is falling to pieces. Which is really exciting from a certain point of view but it’s also consuming and exhausting. My interest on Gabriel Orozco is not really on the particular aesthetic he has managed to create and cultivate in the past couple decades, although I mostly consider it to be a highly exoticizing and marketable take on the improvised spirit that permeates our country — or whatever the hell it can be called now. In other words, it’s always about politics. I’m rather intrigued on the position he built from himself in the Mexican art circuit and how at some point everything else seemed to revolve around him. I don’t believe he’s the demi-god a handful of people think he is. I believe he stopped making interesting work years ago; as I don’t believe in the possibility of poetry, I consider his ‘highly-poetic’ practice to be rather corny and pseudo-nostalgic. But it’s undeniable he knew how to play his cards; deciphering the trick is way more appealing to me than a clay lump held by a bare-chested guy.

I don’t know if Mexico is home, as I don’t know if it ever was. It’s definitely a place I understand despite all its blatant contradictions, rampant disparities and unbelievable energy in other aspects. It’s a place where I can think and make work but it’s so demanding on a daily basis that I also feel I should establish distance and learn to relate to this non-territory from away. It’s one thing to believe in the seductiveness of disaster and chaos and a completely different one actually facing it day to day. I guess I’ll always go back there one way or another; after all, food is good and ladies are quite alright. Beer is also dirt-cheap.

Untitled (Gringo Loco) 2009

SS: Early in your career you earned a reputation as a provocative upstart. One incident in particular concerns the work Untitled (Gringo Loco) (2009), an exact replica of the sign that welcomes visitors to Las Vegas that reads “Welcome to Fabulous Las Vegas Nevada” in lights. Your homage however reads “Fuck Off You Chili-eatin' Gringo Loco Up Your Ass”. Given the history and politics of the region I'd expect that a degree of antagonism towards the US is quite the norm in Mexico, so I was surprised to learn that your sign is was more specifically concerned with issues surrounding a proposed Guggenheim Museum in the city of Guadalajara, and was commissioned by the city itself. Days before the project opened the Mayor of Guadalajara de-authorised your work and had the police escort you from the site where you were installing at gunpoint.

JS: The whole thing was actually a joint project between Arena Mexico, my gallery in Guadalajara, and the city cultural commission. It included a show in a state-operated space that displayed work from a period of about eight years, a second exhibition in the gallery showcasing all new projects, the public sculpture you mention and a three day seminar with fellow artists, curators and writers around the themes that inform my production. We worked on that for almost a year and in the end that was what made me come to Guadalajara in the first place as I had spent most of that year in Los Angeles and trying to cover all that from a distance proved a bit complicated. To cut a long story short, yeah, you got the facts pretty pinned down. The city pulled off just before the unveiling of the sculpture claiming they were not aware of the actual content of the sculpture, but hey, the secretary of culture himself participated in the press conference on the whole thing. After that, they clumsily sabotaged the rest of the program as was widely documented in local and national press and pretty much enacted what came out to be a poorly acted slapstick sketch. That was a bit amusing actually. This guy was so paranoid about everything that was going on that he was sure we were taping all our conversations with him to bring him down. It wasn’t really necessary. He was stupid enough to do it by himself, we just watched.

SS: It was a dramatic sequence of events, was there any other fall out?

JS: Not really, although I would say my relationship to official exhibition spaces in Guadalajara became a bit complicated. Not that I particularly care. They would still invite me to develop projects but they never happened, such as the exhibition that I was asked to propose to the Museo de Arte de Zapopan in 2011 and in which I spent months working, with lots of genuinely interested people collaborating in the project, just to have it put on hold a few weeks before actual production, allegedly because of ‘adverse political climate’ in words of its director. Now, that makes me wonder what the ideal political climate for contemporary art might be?

SS: This incident adds an extra layer of irony to the work – which I understand you have exhibited recently (where?) – but anecdotes such as these also serve to affirm a perception of Mexico that is, as you say, ‘one of the last barbaric bastions of western civilization.’

JS: The sculpture remains unseen as we speak. There have been a number of proposals to show it here and there but for some reason, they never seem to go ahead. It doesn’t really bother me at all. The sculpture is stored in this beautiful open-air workshop, with weed growing all around it, as in a carefully controlled decay process. I think that perhaps that’s the way some works should function: as a trigger in ad-lib socio-political experiments and not as objects with an exchange value within the art market. The physical work itself was important because that was what made everything happen, but when it all ended, perhaps it’s nothing else but a fancy souvenir. Quite bulky too.

SS: Are there plans to show it in Guadalajara?

JS: God, no. Although messing with cultural officers and city authorities is actually my idea of good old-natured fun, it takes too much time and I’m a bit busy at the moment. They must wait. Maybe in a couple years I’ll be back for round two.

SS: The Guggenheim franchise has also copped some criticism of late over human rights violations of workers building the museum in Abu Dhabi. Given your recent escalating status if you were commissioned to produce a work for the Guggenheim, what would you do?

JS: Something absurdly huge and expensive. Something horrid and pointless, I guess. Those all seem to be prerequisites for almost any public project financed by an institution of the sort. Which is not necessarily bad at all; it can still be fun.

Things left unsaid (but not forgotten) #1  2011

SS: I was in Mexico over 2010—11, a period of time marked by celebrations for the bicentenary of Independence and the centenary of the Revolution, but also as violence between warring organised crime cartels — the so called 'Narco Wars' — escalated at an alarming rate. The regularity of killings, the very visible and often formally arranged displays of death, the trophy videos and narco communiqués were both horrific and banal, and often the topic of conversation – to paraphrase Margolles, ‘what else is there to talk about?’ However, I was also very conscious of being a gringo and commenting on a situation that I could simply walk away from.

JS: That’s perfectly ok. I do think it’s a privileged position but when I find myself in a similar stance, I have no prejudice towards using it in my own favor when confronting a specific set of problems in a different context than the ones I’m used to operate in. We should pretty much take advantage of that when located in that liminal point when you can enunciate a clear statement even though there are aspects of it that may or may not reveal themselves at the time. After all, and talking specifically about what you saw in Mexico, a severed head in an ice cooler is pretty much universal.

SS: We first met at the opening of Simon Fujiwara's exhibition at Proyectos Monclova, Mexico City where he premiered the work Letters from Mexico (2011). Letters… is a series of semifictional missives addressed to ‘Yorop’ Fujiwara’s observations (and deliriums) as he travelled to sites of historical significance over the last days of 2010 – a year that marked the bicentenary of Independence, and the centenary of the Revolution. Fujiwara had dictated his thoughts touching on colonial legacies and class discrepancies, in English, to street typists who transcribed his words as a phonetic Spanglish that needs to be read out aloud to be understood. Fujiwara’s account takes some clever narrative turns and there is a final twist where the typists themselves revolt.

Fujiwara often presents his work as an autobiographical fiction playing off his mixed race heritage, and cosmopolitan upbringing with homoerotic figurations and gestures. He has become something of a pin-up boy for “multiethnic, multidisciplinary”[2] postnational practices; a globe-trotting transcultural commentator, who teases out the ironies of race, identity, sexuality and history via a self-reflexive ficto-critique.

I still think of Letters.. as a rather elegant collaboration, that makes use of mistranslation and self-effacing humour, but I recall the patrons were divided?

JS: I found it to perfectly fit with one of my most personally dreaded sub-genres of recent contemporary art in Mexico – el arte de turistas. Famously practiced by Gabriel Orozco, a tourist in his own country, yes, but with a solid following in the years after him. Just a few weeks ago, I saw a Ryan Gander invite for his show in a major Mexican museum. It displayed three bottles of local soft drinks lined up on a rosa mexicano coloured tablecloth at a street restaurant somewhere in Mexico. The show was actually named after the combination of the beverage’s brand names. Really? I don’t think that postnationalism has anything to do with exoticisation at all. I think it actually has to do with the denial of that exact same notion.


[1] Schultz, Brett W. “Gonzo Strategies of Deceit: An Interview with Joaquin Segura”, continent. 1.2, 2011, pp 117-124.
[2] Morgan, Jessica “Simon Fujiwara”, Artforum International September 2010.


An edited version of this interview was Published in Das Superpaper Issue 25: Periférico, November 2012

The Work of Art in the Age of Neoliberal Acculturation: Reflections on a correspondence with Karmelo Bermejo.

Contribution of Fuel to the Costa Da Morte 2005
Ten kilos of fuel-oil poured into the sea at the Costa Da Morte. 

I came across Karmelo Bermejo’s work through an offhand photograph of a scuffed Nilfisk vacuum cleaner in an otherwise slick art magazine, captioned: Internal Component of the Vacuum Cleaner of an Art Centre Director Replaced by a Solid Gold Replica with the Funds of the Centre He Directs, 2010.

Intrigued, I sent Karmelo an email, leading to correspondence and eventually a meeting at Documenta 13, where in suitably cosmopolitan surrounds, we mapped common friends and divulged plans. After some time, Karmelo announced he would like to present me with a gift, flipping open his wallet, producing a crisp, green one hundred Euro bill.

‘Take it.’

Sumugan Sivanesan — With your series Contribution of Labour Free of Charge to… 2005—2007 you subvert assumptions about work, value and exchange by voluntarily cleaning the windows, displays and tables of multinational corporations. How did these businesses react to your gifts of labour — were there confrontations with management or security?

Karmelo Bermejo — Yes, there were always confrontations with management, security and with the police too.

SS — Were you ever physically removed?

KB — Yes, every time.

SS — Is it a crime to volunteer unrequested labour to a profit-making enterprise?

KB — I did not volunteer my labour, I just executed it.

SS — When you contribute free labour to Burger King, the Deutsche Bank and Gucci you do the work of a cheap, exploitable workforce, consistent with the profitable functioning of business, but for Contribution of Fuel to the Costa da Morte 2005 you re-perform a major oil spill, a costly accident that was the result of incompetence. Was this a parody or a memorial to the ecological disaster?

KB — Neither.

SS — Or something of both, like a memorial to incompetence?

KB — I do not run my own pedagogy department. The answer is no to all of the above. Since it is the spectator who finishes the work, no work of art in this world is ever finished.

SS — The pre-modern practice of ‘potlatch’ — a lavish expenditure offered ‘with the goal of humiliating, defying and obligating the rival’(Bataille, 1933 p121) — has been posed as the precursor to contemporary forms of economic exchange. Do your gifts of labour seek to humiliate these corporations?

KB — A potlatch happens without compromising or revealing its objectives; this is to say, without considering itself a ‘potlatch’. Revealing the objective of a work of art compromises the objective of the work.

SS — To me this series suggests an excess of labour that in advanced economies flows into the (anti) production of art as an indicator of cultural prestige.

KB — Exactly.

The Readymade Artist
According to curator Lorenzo Fusi, the Contribution... series ‘empowers those who normally perform these duties for little money and reveals the truth of their exploitation’ (Fusi, 2010 p30). What then do these gifts of labour reveal about the exploitation of artists?

The vanguard assertion of an autonomous sphere of art, from which one may consider and critique the conditions of life, is currently manifest as the art world — a globalised constellation of galleries, museums, schools, studios, publications, fairs and international events animated by a circulation of curators, collectors, critics, theorists, historians, educators, administrators, installers, production assistants, personal assistants and other skilled and unskilled labour forces — the expanded field of art. Across this rarefied terrain, artists undertake paid and unpaid work to compete for grants, residencies, institutional endorsements, gallery representation, critical favour and recognition, in a contest synced with the art market intent on commodifying the experiences of an intensified cultural existence.

In this late capitalist mise-en-scéne, artists have evolved into a semi-professional ‘creative class’ who exploit their networks, skills, work and leisure time to facilitate an art scene — a giddy social-political milieu, the financialisation of which benefits corporate-civic brands and private investors. Artists conditioned in the thin air of social competition no longer critique the status quo, but instead aspire to become it, a deeply conformist twist on the vanguardist demand to collapse art into life. Are artists themselves now the ultimate readymade?

Internal Component of the Vacuum Cleaner of an Art Centre Director
Replaced by a Solid Gold Replica with the Funds of the Centre He Directs:
The Vacuum Cleaner at the Director´s House
18 carat gold, undisclosed dimensions 
The vacuum cleaner at all times remains the property of the Art Centre Director. 

A Bruit Secret
SSInternal Component of the Vacuum Cleaner of an Art Centre Director Replaced by a Solid Gold Replica with the Funds of the Centre He Directs 2010 redirects public funds into the private sphere. This publicly funded artwork becomes the property of the director, which he can then sell for personal profit. You also refuse your artist fee, effectively gifting him the work. With the Contribution... series you are also gifting power, but as a series of disruptions in business-as-usual, enabling a critical re-evaluation of ‘work’. With Internal Component… only the director/owner of this work can access the gold component, enriching him not only in material wealth, but also with a ‘secret knowledge’, in an arrangement that seems to distill the wealth, class and social inequalities inherent in globalised Capitalism. How is it that you now come to be effectively gifting power without recourse?

KB — In chess, there is a move called ‘pawn for pawn’, it takes place a priori since both parts agree it will be beneficial for them. Certain moves are good for both, even if adversaries are irreconcilable in the game. The commonly agreed aim is to go forth until the end of the game, towards the defeat of one of the adversaries. Waiving the fees was an insistence on the gift — a bruit secret1 — that is why my activity as an artist mustn’t be remunerated. If I were to reveal that the gift had a defined goal, it would deactivate the notion of the gift. So, I offered my service of deviation of institutional funds to the director for free. The director becomes the proprietor of exclusive information he alone knows. If anyone should believe this to be a lie, they can demand their money back. Public money that is, or are public art institutions mechanisms for lying?

SS — Where is the vacuum cleaner now? Is it for sale on the secondary market? If so, for what price?

KB — I don’t know. Ask the owner: Ferran Barenblit.

The Use-value of Life
Chicago School economist Gary S. Becker proposes that people as commodified agents can add use-value to their ‘human capital’ by improving their competitiveness in the market according to its desires: undertaking education and training, caring for their health and so on.

In a neoliberal scenario an artist’s value is less determined by the commodities they produce than how they are perceived by the market and their ability to generate a satisfying return on investment. This profile might be determined by factors such as museum and private collection holdings, the receipt of prizes and awards, one’s exhibition history, the opinions of critics and speculators as well as an artist’s notoriety, all of which contribute to their cultural capital.

Solid gold nugget painted in false gold

The Anti-production of Art
SS —The piece < is a solid gold nugget coated in imitation gold. The Spanish Conquistadors melted down much of the gold artefacts they pillaged into bullion, reducing the cultural or occult worth of these objects to that of their base material.

KB — Exactly. However, gold painted in fake gold is more expensive than gold itself.

SS0 is the documentation of a grant you received for €2000 to produce an artwork that you then refused to make, which you later reimburse. Can you reveal what you refused to make?

KB — No.

SS+ 0 is the documentation of the interest accrued on this grant after you delayed the repayment for a year. Was this amount also gifted back to the funding body?

KB — Yes, hence the + 0, which is the symbolic value I granted to that money, the legal credit of the money intended to keep the amount from devaluating in the process of delinquency. The internal logic of this piece answered exclusively to a one-sided decision: my own. Not counting the museum, it was I who developed the piece, gave back the money and paid the interest. I weighed the possibility of the Museum financing the additional expense entailed in the payment of the interest of the money, so that the completed piece would remain enclosed in an algorithm equal to 0, however this idea was discarded so that the activity of the Museum on the piece went exclusively in another direction. This is because the Museum was unconsciously turning into a more elegant accomplice by financing the framing of the piece and giving it the status of a trophy according to my instructions. The Ministry of Culture, co-author due to financing, is also one of the members of the board of the Museum. The Ministry in its display of labyrinthine finance, framed and hung the piece in a context far more important than paying for it. However, the piece was also funded by them. Not only does Spain pay traitors it also erects their statues.

SS-10,000 consists of €10,000 Euros from the Fundación Botín, buried in the grounds of the museum and marked by a bronze plaque. The money, taken out of circulation and hermetically sealed, is unable to be put to work or even generate interest. What is the purpose of removing this money from circulation and production?

KB — I am not yet in a position to talk about this piece on those terms. I’ll give you another example: on the piece Tip 2007 a fine was paid with public money that came from a State grant; furthermore the fine-collector was given a 10% tip over the price of the sanction. A year later, the application requirements for that grant featured a new clause specifying the existence of a new infraction — paying fines with grant money. Tip would have made room for prohibition, which is great, but it would have also contributed to positive case law, not only on a merely legal sense, but also regarding art. The valuable aspect is art.

Tip 2007Fine plus a 10% gratuity.
The inspector of the Hamburg line U-Bahn paid with public money the amount
corresponding to the fine imposed for travelling without a ticket, plus a 10% gratuity. 

Matters of Life and Debt
‘Are you satisfied it is real?’

I snap the note between my fingers to test its tensility, holding it up to the light to inspect its watermark and signs of integrity.

‘Do you want to go to a bank and have them prove it?’

I am surprised by his unexpected gift, but cautious. What’s the catch? Karmelo reaches into his pocket and retrieves a cheap plastic lighter.

‘Now burn it.’

Cash and coins are fetish items of fortunes-yet-to-come and triggers for misplaced desires. So what is it to burn money — or more precisely be gifted the opportunity to burn money, free from any notion of guilt or personal financial consequence? What is money’s use-value in this occult form of expenditure? Does desire itself mutate as such uncommonsensical gifts erupt from market-determined life? What is the force of debt that such a gift bestows?

-x 2012Bank notes, glue, dimensions indeterminateAn undisclosed sum of false counterfeit banknotes,
acquired with public money and moulded by hand by the Director of the Art Centre into a ball, which was
later auctioned in order to be burnt by the highest bidder at a secret meeting later in the Director’s office. 

The Secret Value of Art Work
In June, Karmelo produced a work at Casa Del Lago, Mexico City entitled -x. It follows a mathematical logic to rationalise the financialised personal relations between the artist, museum director and collector and their deliberately misleading acts in the service of art. The institution’s funds were used to acquire an undisclosed amount of ‘false’ counterfeit bank notes — real bills which were glued together with the same face on either side. The director hand-moulded these ‘false false’ bills into a very tight ball, which was then auctioned off to the highest bidder for an undisclosed sum, ‘x’. Framed within the functions of an esteemed cultural institution, such actions produce weird oscillations that disturb the worth of the raw material bank notes, their ability as counterfeits to de-value a currency, and their indeterminate value as symbolic objects, both as money and as art. When we met, Karmelo revealed to me documentation, from behind the closed doors of the director’s office, of the collector burning the actual money he had paid, hence its title -x and the secret function of the work.

With these acts Bermejo appears to alter assumptions about professionalised artmaking as ‘selling out’ into a series of strangely emancipatory tasks that subvert the commodification of relations between people — the market capture of life. The irrational desires that produce such art unveil a systemic error inherent in the logic of Capitalism at work in both public and private spheres, effecting an apocalyptical recouping of life from the market.

‘Next I will send you a certificate of authenticity.’


Bermejo’s gifts of burning money are entitled . that refers to the value exchanged for the amount being burned. It follows the logic that money is finite, whereas the edition is infinite.

Translations by Andrea Quiñones Armería and editing assistance from Tessa Zettel. 


Reference List
Georges Bataille, ‘The Notions of Expenditure’, 1933, in Allan Stoekl (ed., trans.) Visions of Excess: Selected Writings 1927—1939, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 2008, pp 116-29.

Gary S Becker, Human Capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1975.

Nicholas Brown, ‘The Work of Art in the Age of its Real Subsumption under Capitalism’, nonesite.org, Emory College of Art and Sciences, 13 March 2012. 

Claire Fontaine, Ready-Made Artist and Human Strike: A few Clarifications [PDF], translated from French by Olivier Feltham and Continuous Project, Paris, November 2005. 

Lorenzo Fusi, ‘Re:thinking Trade’, in Lewis Biggs, Paul Domela,  Sacha Waldron, Andrew Kirk (eds) Touched—The Book Liverpool Biennial of Contemporary Art Ltd, 2010 p 30.

Pascal Gielen, ‘The Art Scene. A Clever Working Model for Economic Exploitation?’ Open 17: A Precarious Existence, Vulnerability in the Public Domain, SKOR, 2009.


Published un Magazine 6.2 [PDF 5.8MB] December 2012.

A collective inquiry into our present through various proposals

dOCUMENTA (13), 9 June – 16 September 2012, Kassel, Germany.

“You are worse than capitalism!” was an insult leveled at me during a recent visit to Kassel. Indeed, the overarching effects of global capitalism have occupied the minds of numerous critical thinkers over recent years, as reflected in the welcome statement of dOCUMENTA (13) curator Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev:
dOCUMENTA (13) is driven by a holistic and non-logocentric vision that is skeptical of the persisting belief in economic growth. [1]
If the first documenta in 1955 was a cultural project aimed at re-aligning Germany to liberal democratic values after the period of National Socialism, this 13th documenta may well be concerned with the re-aligning the overdeveloped world to the concerns of the globalised during a period of neoliberal postnationalism.

The small contingent of Occupy protestors that set up camp in front of the iconic Fridericianum museum during the opening week has swelled since the closure of the Berlin Biennale in which they were officially included. Having been much discussed across d(13)'s program of talks and seminars, the movement was officially welcomed by Christov-Bakargiev (garnering the nickname dOCCUPY) and entered into documenta's process of historicisation, aligned with “the spirit of the moment and the spirit of Joseph Beuys”. [2]

Although autonomous in ideology, it is understood that art events of this scale are reliant on major corporate sponsors that must be handled diplomatically, as a quick browse of any d(13) promotional material will confirm. More problematic is the claim of local activists that Kassel remains one of the largest arms and weapons manufacturers in Germany. [3] This industry led Kassel to be a key target for bombing campaigns during the Second World War which left the city in ruins, and ironically shaped the conditions that prompted the first documenta as a cultural rebuilding exercise.

Such is the circuitous nature of contemporary life that even those that oppose corporate greed and the industrialised war economy are effectively sanctioned by the very institutions they are critiquing, absorbed into the boundless new spirit of capitalism. So, how do you stage a critique of neoliberal values from a position of complicity?

Why is it easier to imagine the destruction of the planet than an end to Capitalism? Can we explore together the potential for non-capitalist life? What does it look like, sound like, feel like, move like, taste like?[4] 

AND AND AND are an initiative of the artists Ayreen Anastas and Rene Gabri, founders of the 16 Beaver group in New York, in collaboration with d(13)’s Chus Martínez and its Maybe education and public program. During d(13) the collective are interrogating the connections between the art event, the political economy and its local context, and in doing so perform a self-critique within the organising body and its constituent subjectivities.

Based in a former gymnasium at the periphery of the d(13) geography, their Turnhalle location serves as a workshop, meeting room, kitchen and dining hall where the collective hosts talks, screenings and unworkshops according to a series of thematics that have so far included “Capitalism out of the body”, “The politics of small groups”, “Five decolonial days”, and “An anti-capitalist approach to noise and improvisation” as well as a week of anti-university teach-ins.

Collaborating with local students, activists and food producers, the collective operates a cart serving tea made from herbs cultivated in the courtyard of the Ottoneum, Kassel’s natural history museum. They also arrange a food kiosk in the expansive city gardens, Karlsaue park, selling a variety of locally sourced fruits, vegetables, boiled eggs, sandwiches and pastries, that is also the site of a Sunday morning conversation series relating to food and ecology.

As an open-to-all project of activities addressing local concerns via the process of 'commoning', AND AND AND are awkwardly positioned in relation to the organisation from which they emerge. The Turnhalle, Tea Garden, and Food Kiosk are all accessible without the entry ticket required for the other d(13) exhibitions. Their internal programming draws from d(13) participants as well as others not included, extending the scope and reach of the official program, connecting local concerns to a global network of affiliates.

A contemporary historical place.

At the opposite end of the spectrum the artist Gareth Moore pursues an obscure and isolationist alternative to AND AND AND's accessible collectivity. Moore's installation, a place – near the buried canal, is located in the maintenance area at the far end of Karlsaue Park. The site, although listed on the d(13) map, is difficult to find, partly due to the artist having removed its identifying peg.

Moore has lived on site since early 2010 and over that time built a small self-sufficient compound from scavenged and discarded material. Besides the cabin in which he lives, the artist has assembled an inter-spiritual temple, a kiosk selling sodas and incense, a Museum to the Rhinoceros Clara of Infinite Orange Rinds, a healing centre and a small pensione in which guests can stay. (Moore's artist page in the d(13) guidebook is a typewriter set advertisement which includes a cut-out coupon good for one free “Hot shower OR Coffee OR Morning Whiskey OR Beans on toast” valid with accommodation.)

Built with ingenuity and attention to detail, the work affects an outsider enthusiasm making it a word-of-mouth must see. Fenced off behind a small thatch of forest it operates to Moore's own visiting hours and requires a single coin entry fee (all coins are accepted), regardless of a d(13) ticket. Visitors are discouraged from straying from a tightly controlled planked walkway and cameras must be checked at the gate, swapped for a small chestnut on a string.

Whilst it might not be a direct critique of institutional entanglements with neoliberal capitalism, a place... does showcase a self-determined lifestyle and an unorthodox craftsmanship that unfolds as a surprising and delightful series of affective intensities.

Given the unstoppable advance of capitalism unbound, could it be that these documenta enabled pockets of irreality hint at a cure yet to come?


[2] “dOCUMENTA (13) Artistic Director welcomes the»occupy« movement”, documenta.de, 8 July 2012.
[3] “Heute, Mo. 18.06.2012 // 20.00 Uhr: Andandand // 1000Gründe gegen Militarismus”, panzerknacken, 18 June 2012.
[4] AND...AND...AND...“Commoning in Kassel”, documenta.de